Since art, culture and the free expression of thought revealed itself to mankinds collective conscientiousness, there has been a debate between the masses on whether certain things should be kept out of the public eye and made taboo, or whether everyone should be able to express anything they want.
The origin of the word “Censor” finds it’s roots in ancient Rome. It was the name given to who people- it was always two people at any given time- and the origanal function of the censors was to register citizens and there properties. Over time there jo roles expanded into upholding the morals of Rome. Thus Censors were given the right to penalize “moral offenders”, usually by the means of removing there public rights- such as voting. In many ways society hasn’t changed much in regards to the punishment of “moral offenders”, even in Britain one can be sent to prison where they will – temporarily- forfiet some of there rights- such as voting- if they do things that aren’t in line with the laws of the country.
As the general population has gotten technologically, intellecually and psychologically greater, so too has censorship gotten more sophisticated and advanced. This can be seen in 21st century Britain: in regards to the internet.
A recent example of this can be found in the proposed idea to jail internet trolls for two years. While there were already laws covering abuse over the internet, like the communications act of 2003, there are some people that are looking to amend this. In the acts current form, abusing someone on line could potentially put you behind bars for a maximum of six months, but the right honerale Chris Grayling is calling for the maximum sentence to be quadrupled. This is in the wake of Chloe Madeley suffering online abuse who agrees that social media should be regulated and also agrees with the proposed amendments. But amending the law and censoring peoples voices on social media could have some dire consequences.
One of my major concerns with this proposal is that it will punish people for internet trolling, harsher then it punishes actual real life stalkers. An internet troll – in internet slang- is someone who intentionally upsets and winds up others, by posting inflammatory messages on blogs, chatrooms or forums. While the legal definition of stalking is: unwanted or obsessive attention by an individual or group towards another person. Another concern of mine which arises after the definitions are made clear is the fact that the proposers of the amendment haven’t clearly defined the difference between internet stalkers and internet trolls. Chris Grayling appears to be generalizing both as the same, which is untrue. Where my origanal concern comes in are in the cases of Peter Nunn and Isabella Sorley.
Peter Nunn sent six tweets to Labour MP, Stella Creasy, threatening to rape her and brandishing her a witch and even moved to a different account when the origanal one was blocked. Peter Claimed that he was standing up for his right to freedom of speech and expression, but was jailed for 18 weeks, despite never having had a criminal conviction before in his life. Now this seems to be a fair sentence, Peter displayed signs of stalker like behaviour- despite his claim to be saturising internet trolls- and I think 18 weeks is an appropriate sentence. Meanwhile Isabella Sorley sent a series of tweets to a woman and got 12 weeks for, during a drunken state. Now Isabella also has never been criminally convicted and she wasn’t in the best state when she sent those tweets so this is a sentence I feel is just too harsh, perhaps if the sentence were community service, then I could sleep soundly, but the fact that her one drunken rage, is held in comparison to Peter Nunns- seemingly- obsessive stalking is just ridiculous.
Another problem with the amendment proposal is that the current system seems to work. Take the case of Isabella Sorley again, she seems to be genuinly sorry for any distress that she caused the “victom”. What will extending her sentence accomplish in the long run? Nothing. Prison is meant to rehabilitate people, to attune them to society. Society shouldn’t be going out of it’s way to prosecute and punish people further then is absoloutly necaserry.
Another more recent example of harsh censorship, is the new UK porn laws. Recently the government banned a long list of sexual acts which are now not allowed to be performed in British porn. Now while at the moment you can still get porn from other countries with the banned acts in, English porn makers are now in a system which, disadvantages them greatly, hurting the countries porn industry for concievably no reason. The government are also putting plans in place to censor forign porn sights nation wide, while parents having control over there own childrens access is fine, giving said parents the power to stop grown adults from making the conscious decistion to watch porn is ridiculous.
The fact of the matter is that the internet is the only platform in the world where you can express yourself in whatever way you want, whether it’s: sexually, artistically or just putting your half thought out opinions on a blog or social media account for the masses to read. It’s the last bastian of pure expression, where people can either have the spotlight on them or be H.G.Wells invisible man. The point is, the internet shouldn’t be censored or moderated. Yes you’re in the public eye your bound to get harassed, that’s par the course. Yes your going to see things that shock and disturb you, that’s what makes it so great, it’s one of the few places- short of the library- where you can see and read things that challenge and attack your beliefs, views and perceptions. In conclusion I think this quote tells the story best.
” submitting to censorship is to enter the seductive world of “the giver”: the world where there are no bad words and no bad deeds. But it is also the world where choice has been taken away and reality distorted. And that is the most dangerous world of all”.
The role of the writer in the script commissioning process is crucial. Nearly every aspect of the digital Visual/Audio media industry relies on scripts to continue thriving. While there are certain individuals and independent media that doesn’t rely on scripts- but May still use a basic guideline.
The first thing that the scriptwriters have to do is get their script commissioned. There are a plethora of places where people can get scripts commissioned. One way to get your script commissioned is by sending it to a corporation with a media branch. One such corporation is the BBC. The BBC even has a specific part of their website dedicated receiving and reading new scripts sent in from hopeful creative writers. Most scripts sent in are not accepted and the BBC is liable to reject the scripts. Although aspiring writers should not be put off by this, but instead take it with a touch of grace and try again sometime later.
Another place a script writer can try is through an independent producer or director. Independent directors and producers are always looking for new scripts – especially independent film makers. Going with independent contractors can be good because as a writer you may have greater artistic license but far less of a budget to work with.
Another method of getting your script commissioned is by submitting your script into a competition- designed to find the best scripts for future production. One such competition is script pipelines writing contest, it costs around $45 to enter the contest and the finalists get exposure to top producers in the industry. The competition has led to many success stories, one such story is Evan Daugherty who sold his snow white and the huntsman script for $3million to universal studios.
Scriptwriters may be- arguably- the most important part of the commissioning process but there are many other crucial jobs within the process. Some of these jobs are:
Agents, who go out of their way to get there clients- the writers- script sold. There are two types of agents; the first kind of agent is the agent who works for a big agency. These agents usually have many clients and many more connections. The advantage of having a agent in a big agency gives you the advantage of having an agent with plenty of contacts- giving you as the script writer more of an opportunity to find work- however it also usually means that your agent has many more clients, some of whom may be valued more highly than you. The other type of agent is the agent who works for a small agency- or sometimes independently and have very few clients- so they put more time into selling your scripts.
Another important job within the process is the job of the researcher; who has to do vital research on the characters in the script, the setting of the script, the time period of the script and any cultural, religious and political issues that the script deals with. The researchers job is important because if the script is talking about a big issue- for example abortion- then its the researchers job to make sure the script is completely accurate and is both sensitive and insightful on the issue.
Another important job of the script commissioning process is the script editor, it’s the editors job to make sure that the script is polished and smooth as well as making sense. The editor has the job of making sure the dialogue seems real and the stage directions reasonable.
One more important job within the commissioning process is the director, it’s the directors job to interpret the script and present it in a visual medium, the director is arguably the most crucial job in the commissioning process, they have to direct actors to read the script and emote what’s on it.
Another important job is the executive producer, the executive producer is the person who gives the green light on projects, they ultimately oversee all the elements of putting a project together, they handle the money side of things, like hiring actors and paying for sets to be made, they also help to supervise and coordinate the project.
One last important job is the commissioning editor. The commissioning editor has complete financial and creative control over the project, they have to plan, organize and mange the projects that they allow to be commissioned, the commissioning editor’s job is to find a script and turn it into a TV show or film, in order to generate good ratings and make a great amount of box office revenue.
The importance of the writer in the commissioning process can’t be stressed enough, the creativity of the writers is the fuel which runs the commissioning process.
My advice to other aspiring writers would be to never stop trying. That goes without saying of course. Another piece of advice would be to make as many friends in the industry as you can. Especially producers and directors who can use their financial resources and creative leeway to make sure your script is commissioned and converted into content. Another piece of advice I can offer would be to get your script- or scripts out there. That will mean constantly putting your scripts into competitions and send your scripts to writers rooms. Finally I would advise that you always seek criticism and take it with grace. Without knowing your limitations and weaknesses you’ll never improve. Never give up due to Criticism, just embrace it, learn and press on.
Interviews are designed to generate information. There are many ways that a interview can be designed, but a well designed interview is only as strong as it’s interviewer. In this report I will be examining the interview styles and techniques of two long time journalist: Bill O’Reailly and Trevor McDonald.
Bill O’Reailly is a long time interviewer on the fox news channel in America. In his interview with Jeremy Glick, Bill seems to have an agenda set out in his overall interview plan, the agenda being to undermine all of Jeremy’s views. Bill uses open- sometimes seemingly rhetorical- questions to start the interview out. Well calling them traditional questions would be fallacious. Instead Bill seems to make a direct statement masquerading as a question, “I was surprised, and the reason I was surprised is that this ad equates the United States with the terrorists. I was offended by that”. Bill only seems to ask two questions throughout the entire interview, despite the fact that he easily contributed to half of the interviews audio. ” I would never represent you, you know why?” seemingly the only reason this question was asked was so O’Reilly could further antagonise his interviewee. O’Reilly has a confrontational style of interview. This is demonstrated with both his body language- sitting up and straightening his back and pointing his pen at Jeremy when he gets angry or wants to state his point louder. The rapport between Jeremy and Bill is incredibly poor, the interview breaks down into a debate, then into a shouting match. The whole purpose of this interview seemed to antagonise Mr Glick, most likely to get him to go just as aggressive as Bill, however after two minutes in to the interview, Jeremy still has a fairly calm demeanour. Bill clearly steps up the tempo hear with the raised voice, finger pointing and rhetorical questions. Jeremy does lose some composure but not to an extent where he did a disservice to himself. O’Reilly’s goal is to clearly upset Mr Glick, possibly to bring illegitimacy to Glicks political opinions.
O’Reilly is capable of changing this interview template, in his interview with Kevin Sorbo, Bill becomes an almost different person altogether. In this interview Bill actually lets Kevin Sorbo talk and the doesn’t shout or point, he asks qualitative questions, open questions and allows Kevin to put his view point across, granted this is likely due to the fact that Bill agrees with what Kevin is saying, but nevertheless, in this interview Bill shows that he isn’t just a one style interviewer, he can change and adapt his style to achieve a different goal, in this case promoting a movie. Bill is fairly relaxed and casual in this interview, he still have a straight back but doesn’t use his physical presence to impose upon his interview. In this interview he actually asks more questions and allows them to be answered. “Why should i see this, what am I going to get out of it?”. The rapport between Bill and Kevin is very relaxed and easy going, with both apparently on the same page throughout the interview.
In Trevor’s first interview with a death row inmate, Trevor and the inmate have a good rapport, this is mainly due to the fact that Trevor talks in a calm neutral voice. Trevor also has a strong yet calm presence , during the interview he stands about a foot and a half away and maintains eye contact throughout the entire interview. Trevor asks open questions qualitative questions and lets the interviewee answer the question as far as the interviewee wants to. Trevor keeps to the journalistic context, with Trevor’s only goal seeming to be to just let the inmate tell his side of the story . In this interview Trevor stays incredibly professional never letting his reactions or emotions betray him and never judging the inmate for anything he says. The rapport is okay, it’s not supposed to a great conversation though as much as it is supposed to be about the interview talking his side of the story.
In Trevor’s second interview with Tony Blair, Trevor is slightly more aggressive then in the two previous interviews. He keeps his voice and body language neutral, but the main goal of this interview for Trevor seems to be about interrogating Tony in this interview, while he allows Tony to answer his questions, he does occasionally interrupt him, but its usually to ask him another question “but the point is prime minister, the point, the point..” . In this interview Trevor demonstrates a wider variety of question types. He asks qualitative questions, quantitative questions, open, closed even iterative questions. The rapport is pretty decent, throughout the interview Mr McDonald acts more like a moderator between Tony Blair and the audience than he does the interviewer. Occasionally McDonald will ask Mr Blair a question, constantly keeping a calm appearance. ” You’ve said quite frequently that their are things you know which we don’t, why don’t you share it with us this evening then?” This isn’t just a question it’s a challenge, Trevor McDonald is seemingly demanding an answer from Mr Blair- yet retains his composure.
Overall I don’t think Bill’s main style of interrupting and belittling his interviewee is very professional, with that being said it is effective. Bill seems to have an amazing ability at distorting his opponents view point. His loud voice and massive stature helps him overpower his interviews. Bill isn’t as good at conducting an interview where his guest has free reign to speak. In the Kevin Sorbo interview he did seem noticeably uncomfortable when Kevin talked on for more than 30 seconds. Trevor McDonald on the other hand has a different style all together. Staying consistently professional. Although this doesn’t always make an entertaining interview it does make an effective one. In conclusion I believe Trevor McDonald is the superior interviewer. While Bill is effective at what he does, Trevor is just a complete professional at all times, and only seems interested in the story of the interviewee, rather than debating or arguing against the interviewees points.
The role of a writer in the script writing process is incredibly important, it could be argued as the most important aspect of creating a TV show script or a film script, because the whole project hinges on the quality if the script. Script writing can be a long difficult process, it can be tiring and rewarding. But the chances of getting your scripts read by people who are influential in the business. If you want to get anywhere in the business you have to start at the bottom.
There are many ways to get your scripts out there. One of the best ways is to send your script to an organisation that commissions scripts regularly. One such organisation is the BBC writers room, you can send a script to them and they are guaranteed to read them. They won’t always accept them or use them but they will read them and thats whats important, if they do reject you, you should be courteous and grateful and then go back to the drawing board.
Another way to get your scripts out there is by entering them in writing competitions. One such competition to enter is the script pipeline international screen writing contest. It costs $4500 to enter the competition and thousands of people enter the contest in the hopes of winning. Those that do win the contest usually go on to great success, an example of this is: Evan Daughtry who- after winning the competition- sold his script “snow white and the huntsman” to universal for £3,000,000, in doing that he became one of the hottest hollywood properties in the world. Since then he has gone on to be contracted by warner bros to write the new he-man script, he also helped write the script for the new Michael Bay Ninja turtles movie.
There are many jobs within the commissioning process. Some of these jobs include: an agent, whose job is to find work for there clients- the writers- they advertise there clients and try and get the attention of directors and producers in order to sell there clients scripts and make money for there clients and themselves. Another job within the commissioning process is a director, the director has to interpret the script and direct every inch of the film making process into creating there own image of what the script wanted. Another important job role in the commissioning process is the producer. The producer
Since the 15th century the population growth of the earth has been on a constant increase. There were approximately 0.45 billion people in the 15th century, now there are approximately 7 billion people in the world- at the time of writing. This means that in the last 500 years the population has grown by 14x its size in the year 1500, which is incredible considering that in the year 1804 the population was at 1 billion. Whats strange is that from the years 1500-1800 the population only grew by 2x, while from 1800-2014 the population has grown by 7x. There are various reasons why populations grow and there are various ways to bring the populations down, there are many consequences that the human race and the planet suffer, when the population of the world goes too high or too low.
One of the causes of overpopulation is the advancement of medical science and better medical facilities. In the 19th century, science became more and more prominent within society, as a result doctors devoted more time to systematically diagnose the symptoms of patients. Among the new medical techniques that were being developed at the time were anaesthesia and the development of both antiseptic and aseptic operating theatres, actual cures for certain endemic, infectious diseases were made. However the major decline in disease is mainly due to the fact that public health and nutrition increased in quality.
Another cause of overpopulation is the need for more children to overcome and survive things like poverty, natural disasters and wars. Over the thousands of years that human civilization has been on the planet, historically we see that power was solely in the hands of a small few, who didn’t have to go to war- personally-, who weren’t exposed to the elements while farming or other labouring tasks. The majority had to take on all the danger and phsyical labour of the menial tasks, they also made up a majority of armys. Because so much danger faced the peasant/worker class, it was important for poor families to make as many children as possible to preserve the family legacy- infant mortality rate was also incredibly low up until the 19th century.
Immigration is also a factor in overpopulation. People in under developed countries sometimes seek to get into countries like the US, Canada, Germany etc. They go to developed countries to use the countries medical services, to find work and live on a higher wage then they would have access to in there own countries and to also find education in that country. Immigration isn’t as big a factor as some people claim however, as- according to the BBC- in 2013 immigration has gone down since 2005 from approximately 600,000 to around 500,000 coming into the country, with a reported 320,000 people leaving the country in 2013 , so all in all immigration added 180,000 people to the countries population.
There are many negative effects of overpopulation, one of these effects includes the depletion of natural resources and degradation of the environment. As the population grows the need for more food to be made increases. In 2010-12 there were 800 million plus people in the world that are living in poverty, while approximately 2700 kilocalories (kcal) in food is produced per person per day, this indicates that there is enough food in the world for everyone the problem for people living in poverty is that most people who live in poverty live in under-developed countries, about 16 million people who live in poverty live in developed countries. The problem for a lot of people is simply the cost of food, the cost to buy it, the cost to produce it and the cost to distribute it.
Another negative effect of overpopulation is conflicts and wars. Since humans discovered fire, people have been at odds with each other- often leading to conflict. Often countries or tribes had a war to expand there countries/tribes influence on more areas, countries/tribes also go to war over limited resources, such as oil, rare metal and food. But sometimes countries and tribes and empires go to war, just because they want to.
One more negative effect is the rise of unemployment and a higher cost of living. As the population goes up the demand for jobs goes up and that demand is not always capable of being met, then unemployment starts to rise and often crime rates rise with it. In 2013 it was reported by the telegraph that 22% of people on unemployment benefits in England are former criminals, this suggests that crime and unemployment do have a link, Overpopulation can increase the cost of living, as the population grows and items and products become more scarce there prices rise.
There are many solutions to overpopulation. One of these solutions is to create policies to combat overpopulation. One of these policies can be seen in China one child policy. China has the single largest population in the world with over 1 billion people living there, the population in China has grown so big that the Chinese government has implemented a policy to alleviate social, economic and enviromental problems in China- Demographers estimate that the policy has helped to avert at least 200 million births inbetween the years of 1979-2009. This policy basically states that after the first child a family has, they can have more children but they will face fines- immigrants and ethnic minorities are exempt from this policy. However the policy has been accused of violating basic human rights but its also been shown to work.
Another solution to overpopulation is teaching children about sex education. Many parents are uncomfortable about talking to there kids when it comes to sex, which usually results in said children looking on the internet and/or asking there peers about sex. This gives children incomplete information on what contraceptives are and why there important. It is crucial that parents or teachers pass on the information they have learned from there experiences and give that wisdom to there children.
As far as we can tell, humanity started recording history in the 4th millennia B.C. Back then very few people could read so reading materials weren’t in high demand and symbols and images were used in place of words. The oldest example of graphic design is the hieroglyphs in Egypt. In the year 3000BC people would take small round seals, and use rolling pins to put there impressions into wet clay. In woodblock printing- the process of printing patterns, images and texts on textiles and later on paper, under the influence of Bhuddism- would be used in Europe by christianity as a method for printing religious images on cloth where it was common until the 1300s. When paper became relatively common in the 1400s the medium changed to small religious images and playing cards, these prints were produced more from 1425 onwards.
Johaan Gutenburg( 1400-1468) is considered by many to be one of the most important figures in the history of printing press. He was born in Mainz, Germany. Around 1430-1440 he invented moveable, interchangeable and reusable type for printing on a wooden press. It played a key role in the renaissance and helped spread learning to the masses. During the sixteenth century the Netherlands become the unofficial capital of Europe for book printing, the foremost printer was Christophe Plantin by 1576 he owned 22 presses.
The first ever printing press set up in England was set up in 1476 in Westminster. The first book printed in English was in 1473 by the same man who set up the first printing press in England; William Caxton. William(1415/1425) went to live in Bruges, Germany in 1446 where he witnessed the growing industry of the printing press. The first book printed by William Caxton’s press was “Chaucer’s Canterbury tales”. Caxton produced mainly chivalric romances which appealed the English upper class- who were probably the only people who could read at the time.
the victorian times were the stage for great change in all manner of technologies, the steam press being one of the greater technologies to be discovered, it allowed for the user to print large number of pages at once. At this period in time more and more people were learning how to read so the wide spread of books and newspapers became more and more necessary.
In 1969 Gary Starkweather had the idea of using a laser to draw an image onto a copier drum, it wasn’t until 1977 that the product would be sold to the public en masse.
With mass distribution of the computer and the creation of the internet printing images and editing images has never been easier, especially with things like photoshop and other programs allowing for anybody to take and modify images and texts.
Future of print
The future of print is potentially up in the air, with the internet being accessible by over 1/3 of the entire planet and online news sources are used now more than ever and yet there is still a – particularly bizarre- hope for Print, particularly 3D printers.