Encoding and Decoding: Social media political movements- Britain First

With more young people using the internet for their news (Wakefield, 2016) the way in which political propaganda encodes itself, and presents itself is in need of thorough observation and decoding. Britain First describes itself as a “patriotic political party”. It has reached a fair level of prominence in recent times on the social media platform: Facebook. Reaching over one million and a half likes on the site. It is important to understand how this group reached the level it has, if other- far more progressive – political parties are to defeat it. The answer to ‘Britain Firsts’ success, lies in how they encode the content, they release.

It is important to note, that different pieces of material are clearly designed to achieve a specific reading from the audience. The group, will post material that decent people will more or less agree with now and then. However, typically, their actual agenda will also be encoded in the content, leading to an audience- who may not be aware of the group- to make a negotiated interpretation of the material. An example of this can be seen here:

Here we an image of an of old person. Their head is down and their face is covered. The old person takes up two thirds, of the image and the person appears to be somewhat upset. Below we have a caption, reading: “PUT THE ELDERLY BEFORE MIGRANTS!” in white capital letters, strongly contrasted against a black background. The message of the content seems to be that, the elderly are in trouble- or under alot of stress- with the encoded message within being that migrants are somehow involved, or at fault for this. The reason Britain first are so successful is the vagueness of their more despicable messages. It’s never specified how the elderly are in trouble or struggling, it’s simply assumed. The role in which migrants play a role, in the- supposed – strife of he elderly, is also never mentioned, it’s simply left in the air. Now assuming that most everyday people, are somewhat decent and capable of compassion, it’s highly doubtful that they would take a oppositional reading of the content. Regardless of their views on immigration. Thus a negotiated interpretation of the content of the material is reached.

Another example of this purposefully designed negotiated reading tactic can be seen here, in an excerpt from their ‘about’ page on Facebook.

Do you share our vision of Britain where pensioners don’t freeze in winter, where billions of our money doesn’t get sent abroad in foreign aid, where crime is stamped out, where British history and discipline is taught in schools, where sexual degeneracy is not the norm but the exception, where jobs go to British workers and where the United Kingdom is united and strong?”

Here- just like in the previous example- we have elements that reasonable people, would find no contention with. It’s no coincidence that this list of “values” begins, with it’s more reasonable stances. I would argue the first four positions, are defined enough to the point where somebody could potentially, reasonably have arguments in favor of said positions. Then, in the middle of the paragraph, an incredibly vague statement on “sexual degeneracy”. Now it isn’t made clear what is meant by “sexual degeneracy”. In order to achieve maximum negotiated reading, it would seem that the message is left vague enough for Britain First to have a level of plausible deniability as to what they mean, when they use certain phrases and words in their advertising. This example is a little more substantial then the image, however, more people are likely to see the image as, it’s easier to find and much quicker to read.

Below is another piece of material that Britain First material:

This piece of content, establishes that, in order to get attention, Britain First will post material, that most audiences would submit to the dominant message of- and thus unwittingly aid the overall message and goals of Britain First. Now this material, has almost nothing to do with their politics. It is simply a cynical attempt to take advantage of peoples goodwill, in order to court more people to their cause.

To conclude, Britain First have risen to such a level that they can be called a legitimate party with social media campaigning, due to crafty encoded marketing of their ideas. Now to someone, unfamiliar with Britain First, a great deal of negotiated reading will be had. However to someone who knows of Britain First, their materials can be easily decoded and the true message beneath the material understood.

References:

Britain First About Page(Online). Available at:https://www.facebook.com/pg/OfficialBritainFirst/about/?ref=page_internal [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Image of an old person from the Britain First Facebook Page. Britain First Facebook Homepage. (Online) Available at: https://scontent.xx.fbcdn.net/v/t1.0-9/17201132_1276346015843990_8252872519073037243_n.jpg?oh=2b9baae5c7a73c150f431ec1cfed77fb&oe=59698AFB [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Image of a Squiral from the Britain First Facebook Page. Britain First Facebook Homepage. (Online) Available at: https://scontent.xx.fbcdn.net/v/t1.0-9/17155944_1276574225821169_6095740317506746469_n.jpg?oh=0c06c05b7c0f8ab9479dfd6b6e6808bd&oe=5972BFAF [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Wakefield, Jane. (2016). Social Media ‘Outstrips TV’ as news source for young people. (Online). Available at:http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-36528256 [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

 

Semiotics of gender design in Star Wars

Cinema is and has been since its inception, a visual medium. As a result, it is crucial to understand and recognize symbols within the text of cinema. Specifically, symbols that lie within contemporary cinema. With woman now achieving an all time high, of headlining films in 2016, with 29% of the top one hundred grossing movie protagonists being female. However in those same one hundred films, woman made up for only 32% of all speaking roles( Kilday, 2017). It is now crucial- arguably- more than ever, to look at how they are represented? What symbols are used to define them and their characters? Does contemporary cinema naturalize any harmful values from yesteryear? How does the semiotics of cinema, translate to how woman are viewed in the real world?

In particular, the aesthetic signs on display, will be the ones put through the most thorough analysis. It is important to keep in mind that the analysis, will be purely subjective, based on my interpretation of codes and signifiers. The focus will primarily revolve around the design of characters and the background visual aesthetics of the characters world.

In order to understand what particular symbols are resonating with a modern audience, one of the top ten grossing films of 2016 will be used as a sample. The film-  possibly the most important Star Wars film- would be ‘Rogue One: A Star Wars Story’. It’s not only the first ever stand-alone ‘Star Wars’ film, it is also the first film to feature a solo female protagonist. Now female protagonists have existed in ‘Star Wars’ before, however they have had the role of duo protagonist or trio protagonists, within the narrative of the films. These are the first four, images you will get if you type the name of the films protagonist- Jyn Erso- into google:

The apparel of the character in the images has a gender neutral design. Nothing about the outfit, is even remotely sexual, instead the focus of the design, appears to be functional. In each image, we see the character wearing an outfit that would functional within the context of the image. Take for example the second image. In it we see the character in what appears to be an imperial base- for anyone unfamiliar with ‘Star Wars’ the imperials are the villains. In the image she’s wearing an imperial outfit. In the context of the film she is the protagonist, thus wearing the outfit signifies a level of competent subterfuge. This design and decision, indicates that the character has a sense of initiative and common sense about her. Compare this to the original ‘Star Wars’ film (Lucas,1977):

 

In this scene, the male characters are using the same sensible tactic as Jyn. That is disguising themselves as the enemy for the purpose of infiltration.The one female character however- Leia- is visual portrayed very differently. In the scene above, Leia, wears a white dress, which isn’t revealing in the sense that her bare body is exposed. However it is fairly tight and makes her hips visually prominent. The pose that she’s doing when she first enters the scene is also provocative- for a children’s adventure film. The character in the 1977 film, has a number of visual gender signifyers. Besides the already discussed apparel, the way her hair is in perfect condition and stylized, despite her being a prisoner at the time, is a big give away, of her gender. Jyn Erso on the other hand has almost no major gender signifyer, her design is one of practicality.

The only major flaw of the design, is that perhaps it doesn’t have enough character in it. The colours used in her outfit design are dark, browns and greys- very bleak. Now in the context of the film’s story, the world is very bleak, so the design would make sense, however in the stories context, Jyn becomes a beacon of hope for the heroes of the film. But rather then adapt a newer design or incorporating different- possibly brighter- colours into the design. The character’s outfit design is ultimately left fairly bland throughout.

Once again, we’ll compare this lack of evolution in Jyn’s character design, to the character of Leia in ‘Star Wars: Return of the Jedi’ (Lucas, 1983).

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Now to be fair, Leia spends much of the film in a sexualised bikini costume, but that is in the first act. After escaping that fate herself, by the end of the film, Leia has gone from a sexualised- by the villains that context is important- to a similar under sexualised, functionally designed character.

In conclusion, from these example, the symbols and floating signifyers of popular female characters design in fiction have evolved to quite a significant degree- as far as protagonist characters are concerned. On one hand, this evolution is progressive and positive, as female characters are no longer designed purely for sexual satisfaction. That isn’t to say that Leia’s character was designed for that purpose, however the series has more then a few examples of exploiting the characters sexuality. On the other hand, this has led to a lack of evolution in character design over the course of the narrative.

References:

Image of Jyn Erso from Rogue One: A Star Wars Story. Wookiapedia. (Online).Available at: http://vignette1.wikia.nocookie.net/starwars/images/2/2a/Jyn_Erso_Fathead.png/revision/latest?cb=20161109012753 [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Image of Jyn Erso from Rogue One: A Star Wars Story. Wookiapedia. (Online).Available at: http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/starwars/images/0/00/Jyn_Erso.png/revision/latest?cb=20160407230633 [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Image of Leia Organa from Star Wars: Return of the Jedi. Pinterest. (Online).Available at: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/03/a3/04/03a30401b43c524effd0287a97402866.jpg  [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Image of Jyn Erso from Rogue One: A Star Wars Story. Bad Kitty Tees. (Online).Available at: http://www.badkittytees.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/jyn-1.jpg [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Image of Jyn Erso from Rogue One: A Star Wars Story. Wookiapedia.(Online). Available at: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9d/Felicity_Jones_as_Jyn_Erso_(2016).jpg [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Kilday, Gregg.(2017). Movies in 2016 Featured a Record Number of Woman Protagonists. The Hollywood Reporter. Can be accessed online at:http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/movies-2016-featured-a-record-number-women-protagonists-977956 [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Rogue One: A Star Wars story. (2016). [film]. Hollywood. Gareth Edwards. [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Star Wars: A new Hope. (1977). [film]. Hollywood. George Lucas. [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

Star Wars: Return of the Jedi. (1983). [film]. Hollywood. George Lucas. [Assessed on 8/3/2017]

 

 

Uses and gratification in social media

The uses and gratification theory, posits that people, use media based on what their needs are, and to satisfy those needs. Uses and gratification, effectively operates under the assumption that users, are free agents when it comes to choosing the media sources that they consume from. This theory wouldn’t apply in social system in which news is distributed under a dictatorship. The rise of Web.2 and social media then, is something of a proving ground for the theory. With very little restriction or regulation, the average person can satisfy almost any gratification they have.

To understand how people use social media for their own gratification it is important to understand how different platforms are used and designed. For example Facebook is used to gratify people’s need to socialize and make friends. This point is further emphasized by Facebook referring to other users you can interact with, with the informal title of ‘friend’. Compare this to other popular social networking sites like: ‘Twitter’ and ‘YouTube’. They use the much less informal  ‘follower’ and ‘subscriber’. An unrestricted platform with the uses and gratifications theory seems to lead to a diverse selection of platforms. This is most emphasized by each platforms most popular user. For ‘Youtube’ the most popular user is PewDiePie(Socialblade,2017). For ‘Twitter’ it is Katy Perry(Friend or Follow, 2017). Now both individuals are very different as far as their entertainment styles. One is a gamer the other a singer. Another thing to note is that they are both members of the other platform and yet are knowhere near as popular on that platform.

The freedom afforded by the internet isn’t necessarily always a positive thing. As numerous examples point out, the unrestricted nature of the platforms, leads certain individuals and groups to take advantage. A platform where this appears a fair amount is twitter. One of the most recent and prominent victims of social medias lack of restraint was Leslie Jones(Oluo,2016), who appeared to be getting the abuse that she was getting because she was in a film. Astonishingly the level of pettiness in that example isn’t an isolated incident (Duggan, 2014). The reason for the vile and mean spirited nature that individuals take on when they go online isn’t completely clear. However, it would appear that the answer is relatively simple. People are abusive online simply because they can be, because the opportunity is their for them to do it.

In conclusion, the internet and social media, seems to confirm the uses and gratification theory. The uses and gratification theory, clearly leads to a variety of diversity between the different social media platforms, which can be good, for discussion and variance. Also the unrestricted access that people have online and the lack of any boundarys, has led to something of a toxic environment when it comes to discussing certain topics on platforms.

References:

Duggan, Maeve. (2014). Online Harrasment. Pew research centre. (Online) Can be accessed online at: http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/10/22/online-harassment/ [Assessed on the 8/3/2017]

Friend or Follow. (2017). Twitter: Most Followers. Friend or Follow. (Online).Can be Accesed online at: http://friendorfollow.com/twitter/most-followers/ [Assessed on the 8/3/2017]

Oluo, Ijeoma. (2016). Leslie Jone’s Twitter Abuse is a Deliberate Campaign of Hate.(Online) Can be accessed online at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jul/19/leslie-jones-twitter-abuse-deliberate-campaign-hate [Assessed on the 8/3/2017]

Socialblade.(2017).Top hundred youtubers by subscribed. Socialblade. (Online).Can be accessed online at:http://socialblade.com/youtube/top/100/mostsubscribed  [Assessed on the 8/3/2017]

Unit 16: film and editing techniques

Unit 16: film and editing techniques

Editors are crucial to the filmmaking process. Editing can make or break a film and editors have to – painstakingly – go through every minute of footage: decide what scenes to keep, what to cut, what visual effects should be used, what Audio effects should be used, create a smooth and flowing narrative and to discover and edit- or remove- any king of factual, grammatical and typographical from the film.

The genesis of film editing began with – what is believed to be – the first ever motion picture. In the December of 1985, the Lumiere brothers, exhibited their a selection of their single-reel films to the viewing public. One of the most important examples of special effects used in film are the effects used in the short film ‘A trip to the moon’. It’s not the first example; but it is arguably the most important. It’s a film of many tricky edits, directed by George Melies- often affectionately known as the cinemagician. Melies’ was a noted illusionist and employed his skills in his films. The most important effect he perfected was the ‘stop trick substitution effect’. Melies claims to create the effect by stopping the camera and changing the: set or characters to create an effect of instant transition. In ‘A journey to the moon’ the effect is used in the third act; when smoke is activated the camera is stopped, the actor leaves the set and the camera resumes rolling- giving the impression that the character disappeared in a puff of smoke.

Another film which has had a plethora of influence on the modern day filming at large, is ‘Battleship Potemkiv’. This film is equipped with the some of the greatest large scale battle set pieces of all time- effectively helped by the impactful score. It’s also a film which uses the basic tools of cinema and some of Eisenstiens greatest cinematic rules. The use of montage as a visual storytelling technique is astounding and has influenced many action films.

Of course in the days of Melies and the Lumiere brothers they were held back by linear editing. Linear editing is the process of editing and modifying images and sound in a predetermined manner. Sequentiality is key in linear editing. In linear editing it is essential that you own a VCR- other a similar device to play tapes, it also requires handling the raw footage that you film and can be long and arduous- but it is notably cheaper than non-linear editing. It was the only form of video editing; until the early 1990s. Non-linear editing is the process of editing recorded film through digital software. It didn’t really get it’s advent until the early 90s, yet it only took it a decade and a half to- almost- completely replace the form of editing that came before it. However it’s not hard to see why, non linear editing is named as such because, unlike linear editing, non linear editing allows you to edit chunks of a film at will with little inconvenience, whereas if you wanted to edit using linear methods you can’t easily build a program out of sequence or in separate chunks. The only way to change a previously made edit is to perform a new edit over the old one. If the new edit should happen to bigger than the old one than you’ll cover up a bit of the next scene on the tape. Though non linear editing used to be the more expensive of the two, but with the advent of the smart phone and basic computers, digital editing software is now available- cheaply- to anyone who wishes to seek it.

Creating special effects is not the end of video editing however. Another big part of editing is presenting a cohesive narrative in the context of a visual medium. Editors employ a number of skills in order to do this. It is crucial that an editor keeps a constant narrative flow throughout their work. To tell a story an editor must first understand the complete context behind the story: the themes, the genre etc. If the genre is a horror movie, the editor will look to use the most frightening, isolating and tight camera shots as possible. An editor may also use cross cutting to build tension in a scene; an example of this technique in effect would be the first Jaws movie, where the scene oscillates between the shark’s POV and a wide angle shot of a woman swimming in the sea. If, however, an editor is editing a comedy then they may want to include a laugh track. Or in the case of animation- for example in Tom and Jerry- the editor needs to make sure all the audio matches the action on screen. Fundamentally film editing determines the structure and pace of the story. Another example of using camera shots to tell a narrative can be found in the film independence day. The director purposefully uses certain camera shots to further the theme of the story. For example in one scene a woman is standing in a crowd- yet the camera isolates her, singling her out- shortly thereafter she dies. Everything about that scene builds foreboding: the shots, the music, all adds up to an impressive CGI heavy scene where the woman and a crowd of hundreds- perhaps thousands- die.

Another technique that film makers and editors can utilize is the 180 degree rule. This technique is usually used to show a conversation between two people- though their can be more than two people in the conversation. The basic idea is that using this technique you can use midshots, close ups and big close ups simply by moving the camera around while the two – or more- actors exchange dialogue. The best way to do this is to create a figurative straight line between the two subject- called the axis of action. Using this axis: you need to keep your camera on the other side of the line. The camera cannot move more than 180 degrees around the characters.

Another technique that an editor has to do is maintain continuity throughout the film. Continuity is essentially making sure that a continuous level of detail is maintained from scene to scene throughout the film. A good example of continuity can be found in the Star Wars movies; particularly the fight scenes. The original trilogy had exceptional level of detail, so maintaining continuity throughout is a wonderful feet and demonstrates incredible attention to detail. A bad example of continuity can be found in the third act of: The Avengers. One example of Avengers poor continuity would be in this one scene: where one of the main protagonists is shot and clearly bleeding, later on- about 5 minutes in movie time- any sign of the wound previously received is gone. Keeping good continuity can increase the immersion of the audience. Bad continuity just serves to take the audience out of the moment, which can prove disastorous for a film- see any Uwe Boll movie for an example.

Another technique that the editor can use, as a story telling mechanic, is ellipsis.  An ellipsis is a term used to describe the time that passes between an interesting/relevant scene to the next interesting/relevant scenes. This is a tool which is hard to misuse. Most films are capable of utilising this tool effectively- without having to explain how much time has passed between each scene. Aliens is an excellent example of ellipsis being used effectively. About two days occur during the course of the film and every scene flows so easily past each scene. A bad example of ellipsis can be found in ‘batman: the dark knight rises’. The biggest complaint of that movie is that a good three months passes between the second act and third act. What made this a problem is that it is never clear that amount of time had passed which led to confusion from the audience. This confusion may have something to do with the latter film having a convoluted plot, while the plot of Alien is fairly straight forward. In which case the screen writer can be blamed for the poor effort as well.

One technique that an editor can utilise- if the resources are available- is the Leitmotif. The Leitmotif in film terminology is essentially assigning a piece of music to: a character, a place or an idea. This can be seen in a few famous films. One such series of films is the Alfred Hitchcock’s ‘Psycho’.  Certain music is used when certain characters or settings are on the screen. This can be effective because the audience can then make a mental connection to the music and the character; always expecting to see one when they hear the other and vice versa. Like in Psycho whenever ‘Norman Bates’ shows up as his alter ego a certain sharp music is used to increase tension.

If their is anything an editor should not do it is overuse certain effects. They should make their editing clear and have a point but they shouldn’t overuse certain effects. J.J. Abrams is notorious for constantly using lens flare in his movies- to the point where spoof trailers are made of his movies actual trailers filling the screen with lens flare. Another example of over use of certain editing effects can be seen in the star wars prequels. The scene wipe is used for almost every transition, it gets noticeable and annoying very quickly.

Walter Murch is a an editor famous for his work on ‘Apocalypse now’. He once said: If you have to give up something, don’t ever give up emo­tion before story. Don’t give up story before rhythm, don’t give up rhythm before eye-trace, don’t give up eye-trace before planarity, and don’t give up planarity before spatial continuity.” Walter Murch used this creed to edit all his films, though it might not be a rule that you want to use, it’s difficult to deny it’s effectiveness when used by Murch.

In summary an editor is the one of the most influential people when working on a film. The editor has a lot of responsibility and needs to maintain a constant knowledge on all of the new techniques and conventions- and of course technology. An editor should always have a reason for cutting or adding something, whether it’s using certain camera angles, attaching music to characters, using certain lighting or effects etc. Everything should have a purpose.

The 180 degree rule, looking space and eyeline match

http://adamwestbrook.WordPress.com

http://www.elementsofcinema.com

http://videoandfilmmaker.com/wp/index.php/tutorials/film-editing-walter-murchs-rule-6/

unit 16: film and editing techniques

Unit 16: film and editing techniques

Editors are crucial to the filmmaking process. Editing can make or break a film and editors have to – painstakingly – go through every minute of footage: decide what scenes to keep, what to cut, what visual effects should be used, what Audio effects should be used, create a smooth and flowing narrative and to discover and edit- or remove- any king of factual, grammatical and typographical from the film.

The genesis of film editing began with – what is believed to be – the first ever motion picture. In the December of 1985, the Lumiere brothers, exhibited their a selection of their single-reel films to the viewing public. In the short clip a piano can be distinctly heard playing in the background. This piece of audio would have been added in post production, making it one of the first ever examples of video editing in history. One of the most important examples of special effects used in film are the effects used in the short film ‘A trip to the moon’. It’s not the first example; but it is arguably the most important. It’s a film of many tricky edits, directed by George Melios- often affectionately known as the cinemagician. Melios’ was a noted illusionist and employed his skills in his films. The most important effect he perfected was the ‘stop trick substitution effect’. Melios claims to create the effect by stopping the camera and changing the: set or characters to create an effect of instant transition. In ‘A journey to the moon’ the effect is used in the third act; when smoke is activated the camera is stopped, the actor leaves the set and the camera resumes rolling- giving the impression that the character disappeared in a puff of smoke.

Of course in the days of Melios and the Lumiere brothers they were held back by linear editing. Linear editing is the process of editing and modifying images and sound in a predetermined manner. Sequentiality is key in linear editing. In linear editing it is essential that you own a VCR- other a similar device to play tapes, it also requires handling the raw footage that you film and can be long and arduous- but it is notably cheaper than non-linear editing. It was the only form of video editing; until the early 1990s. Non-linear editing is the process of editing recorded film through digital software. It didn’t really get it’s advent until the early 90s, yet it only took it a decade and a half to- almost- completely replace the form of editing that came before it. However it’s not hard to see why, non linear editing is named as such because, unlike linear editing, non linear editing allows you to edit chunks of a film at will with little inconvenience, whereas if you wanted to edit using linear methods you can’t easily build a program out of sequence or in separate chunks. The only way to change a previously made edit is to perform a new edit over the old one. If the new edit should happen to bigger than the old one than you’ll cover up a bit of the next scene on the tape. Though non linear editing used to be the more expensive of the two, but with the advent of the smart phone and basic computers, digital editing software is now available- cheaply- to anyone who wishes to seek it.

Creating special effects is not the end of video editing however. Another big part of editing is presenting a cohesive narrative in the context of a visual medium. Editors employ a number of skills in order to do this. It is crucial that an editor keeps a constant narrative flow throughout their work. To tell a story an editor must first understand the complete context behind the story: the themes, the genre etc. If the genre is a horror movie, the editor will look to use the most frightening, isolating and tight camera shots as possible. An editor may also use cross cutting to build tension in a scene; an example of this technique in effect would be the first Jaws movie, where the scene oscillates between the shark’s POV and a wide angle shot of a woman swimming in the sea. If, however, an editor is editing a comedy then they may want to include a laugh track. Or in the case of animation- for example in Tom and Jerry- the editor needs to make sure all the audio matches the action on screen. Fundamentally film editing determines the structure and pace of the story.

Another thing that an editor has to do is maintain continuity throughout the film. Continuity is essentially making sure

Research for wednesday workshop

The role of research in the creative media sector is vital. Doing research allows the researcher to gain an insight into: peoples view on things- whether that be political views or views on a product. It can also allow the researcher to learn more about a product they wish to sell. Research can also allow the media industry to “check the pulse” of their desired audience; and cater to their needs and interests accordingly. The main point of research is to gain information, fro first and second hand sources: Although in some cases certain techniques of research can be used to create artificial statistics, for example asking many lead lead in questions- which are expertly crafted- can mislead the interviewee into giving answers to questions that they normally wouldn’t/ Although doing this in the media industry seems fairly self damaging- especially considering that media evolves and changes depending on public taste; which is a constant variable and subject to no one persons control. Primary research is getting information straight from the source. Primary research is important because it allows the media industry to directly get receive advice. Primary research gives genuine facts, it’s easy to obtain and it provides both qualitative and quantitative research, criticism and ideas from their potential customers. Methods of getting primary research usually include: questionnaires and surveys. Questionnaires and surveys are usually several question types. One such question type is the open question. An open question is a question with an open answer. An example of a open question could be ” what is the meaning of life”. Another question type is the closed question. A closed question has a rigid answer. An example of a closed question is “what is 2 plus 2”. Another question type is an iterative question. An iterative question is more likely to be found in an interview. Iterative questions are usually used as improvised questions in interviews, so that the interviewer can go into a subject with their interview which they didn’t originally plan on. Primary research is important to the industry because it can also allow companies to know how big their target audience is. Secondary research is getting information from a second hand source, whether that be from the internet, newspapers and books. Secondary research is good to use because it provides quick and easy information.

Reflecting on the legal and ethical ramifications of advertising

One of the major laws – regarding journalism – in the UK is the defamation act, which was ammended in 2013. The defamation act is designed to defend an individual or a body of individuals or a corporate entity from unfair attacks which could damage their reputation. Their are a few arguments that can be used in the journalist’s defence if they are accused of defamation. The first one being that the content is published in the public interest. Obviously as the publisher you would have to present proof that your comments are justified on true, the one downside to this argument is that the burden of proof is on the content creator. One major case is that of Christopher Jeffries. After the murder of a British woman- Joanna Yeates- Mr Jeffries was portrayed unfairly by highly esteemed media distributors in the UK. As it turned out Mr Jeffries had nothing to do with Joanna’s death. He ended up recieving libel payments from eight newspapers- fees undisclosed. Another legal consequence of this particular case was the contempt of court- or simply called “contempt”. This spawns from the 1981 contempt of court act. The Sun and Daily mail were issued the contempt of court, for publishing information that would affect the prejudice of the courts- and Jury.